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The UPSC Mains examination is a comprehensive test of a candidate’s knowledge and understanding of various subjects. Here are some of the standard books that are recommended for UPSC Mains examination preparation:

1. Indian History: ‘India’s Struggle for Independence’ by Bipan Chandra, ‘A Brief History of Modern India’ by Rajiv Ahir, and ‘The Wonder that was India’ by A. L. Basham.

2. Geography: ‘Certificate Physical and Human Geography’ by Goh Cheng Leong, ‘Oxford School Atlas’ by Oxford University Press, and ‘Geography of India’ by Majid Husain.

3. Polity: ‘Indian Polity’ by M. Laxmikanth, ‘Introduction to the Constitution of India’ by D. D. Basu, and ‘Our Parliament’ by Subhash Kashyap.

4. Economy: ‘Indian Economy’ by Ramesh Singh, ‘Economic Survey’ by the Government of India, and ‘India Year Book’ by the Government of India.

5. Environment: ‘Environment by Shankar IAS’, ‘India Year Book’ by the Government of India, and ‘Ecology and Environment’ by P.D. Sharma.

6. Science and Technology: ‘Science and Technology’ by Spectrum, ‘Science Reporter’ by Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, and ‘India Year Book’ by the Government of India.

7. Ethics: ‘Lexicon for Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude’ by Niraj Kumar and ‘Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude’ by G. Subba Rao.

8. Essay: ‘Essays for Civil Services’ by Pulkit Khare and ‘151 Essays for UPSC Mains’ by Disha Experts.

9. Optional Subject Books: Candidates can refer to standard textbooks related to their optional subjects such as ‘Indian Society’ by Ram Ahuja, ‘Modern World History’ by Norman Lowe, ‘Public Administration’ by M. Laxmikanth, and ‘International Relations’ by Pavneet Singh.

It’s important to note that this is not an exhaustive list, and aspirants should refer to the UPSC syllabus and consult with their mentors or coaching institutes for additional reading material.