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Geography of India Northern Mountains Himalayas

Himalayas

The Himalayas are the most complex and high mountain peaks extending from the western Ganges Mountains to the northern border of India or from the eastern side of the Indus River to the Barwa Peak named Purves. To the north of this mountain range is the Tibetan Plateau and to the south is the plain of the Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra river.  in this article, we explain about Expansion of Himalayas.

Importance of Himalayas
Expansion of Himalayas

Expansion of Himalaya

From the east to the west the length of the Himalayan mountain is 2400 km and the width is 400 km to Jammu and Kashmir and 150 to 200 km in Arunachal Pradesh. 

  •  Width of the Himalayan mountain range decreases from west to east.
  • The Himalayan Range covers an area of 5 lakh square kilometers which is 15% of the total area of India.
  • The average height of the Himalayas is 6,000 to 8,000 meters.
  • 9 of the 10 highest peaks in the world are in the Himalayas.
  • Himalayan range is higher in the east than in the west.

Political Expansion of Himalayas

Political expansion of Himalayas of the Himalayas starts from the east of Pakistan to India Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, in these states. To the east, the foothills of the Himalayas from the Indo-Myanmar border.

-The Himalayas is the Place of origin of international rivers like the Ganga, Indus, and Brahmaputra.

geography of india the northern mountains of himalayas
geography of India the northern mountains of Himalayas

1. Trans Himalaya

  • Mountain range places between the Great Himalayas and Tibet.
  • It is also called Tibet Himalayas or Tethis Himalayas.
  • Range is 40 km wide and 965 km length.
  • Average height of this mountain range is 6000 meters.

    Trans Himalaya mountain range includes the following mountains

  1. Karakoram Mountain Range:  this mountain range is a major mountain range in the Himalayan mountain range. The second highest peak in the world and the highest peak in India is K2 Godwin Austin at 8611 meters.

This mountain range is spread over 5 km.

  1. Ladakh Mountain Range: This region is known as the Cold Desert. The Indus River deflects this mountain range. The deepest valley in India, Bhunzi valley – 500 meters is here.
  2. Kailash Mountain Range: This mountain range is in Tibet. Kailash Peak is 6713 m and Mansarovar is a  part of this mountain range. The Indus River  Originates from the northern slope of this range.
  3. Zaskar Mountain Range: The average height of these mountain ranges is about 6000 meters.

2. Greater Himalaya :

  • The Greater Himalayas are covered with snow all year round.
  • This mountain range extends from Nanga mountain in the northwest to Namcha Barwa mountain in the east.
  • The average height of the Great Himalayas is 6,100 meters and the width is 120 kilometers to 200 kilometers. 
  • The highest peak in the world, Mount Everest, is 8850 meters above sea level Is part of these mountain ranges. The Himalayas are located on the border of Nepal and Tibet.

3. Laser Himalaya :

  •  The average height of these mountains is 4500 meters
  • The important mountain ranges in the Himalayas are Peer Punjab Dhavala Dhara Nag Riva Mussoorie comes into the laser Himalayas.
  • Some of the main valleys in the Lesser Himalayas, such as the Kashmir Valley, the Kangra Valley.

4. Shivalik Range :  

  • The southernmost ranges of the Himalayan range are known as the Shivalik hills.
  • These Hills extend from the Potwar Plateau (In Pakistan) to the west and The Brahmaputra (In India )to the east.
  • ​​The average height of the Shivalik range is 600 to1500 meters.

Mount Everest
Mount Everest

Regional classification and Expansion of Himalayas

  1. Jammu and Kashmir Himalayas or Punjabi Himalayas: This range of Himalayas extends from the Indus to the Satalaj river, with a total length of 700 km and a width of 500 km. 
  1. Kumar and Gadwal Himalayas: The Kumaon Himalayas cover a distance of about 320 km from the Sutlej to the River Kali. The western part is known as Ghadwal Himalayas and the eastern part is known as Kumau Himalayas. The highest peak Nanda Devi is 7817 meters high. Kedarnath, Badrinath, Gangotri, Yamunotri, is the Holy places of the country in the Kumaon Himalayas.
  1. Nepali Himalayas: Nepal Himalayas extends from Kali river to Teesta River for a total of 800 km. The world’s highest peak, Mount Everest (8850 m.), is in the Nepal Himalayas.
  1. Assam Himalayas: The Assam Himalayas extend from the river Teesta to river Brahmaputra about 720 kilometers.

Importance of Himalayas

  • Himalaya High stands like a huge wall on the northern border of India Therefore, it forms a Protective Border.
  • The Himalayan range is working to block the extremely dry cold winds from Northeast and Central Asia.
  • The Himalayas are doing a great job of blocking the monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean, Which affects the rains of India.
  • The Himalayan mountain range is completely covered with ice, from which many Glaciers and small and large streams originate.
  • The Himalayas cover 52% of the total forest area of India.
  • The Himalayas are rich in deposits of coal, copper, zinc, cobalt, nickel, gold, silver, antimony, limestone, tungsten, and other valuable minerals.
  • There are many holy places of worship in the Himalayan mountain range like Vaishnav Devi, Badrinath-Kedarnath, Kailas Parvat, Gangotri Yamunotri, Rishikesh, Haridwar, Devprayag.
  • The Himalayan tourism sector has developed tremendously.

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