Population growth rate depends on birth rate and mortality rate. According to The Theory of Demographic Transition, there are three stages of population growth.
1. The first stage :
- According to The Theory of Demographic Transition, both the birth rate and the mortality rate are higher in the first stage.
- The economy is underdeveloped and agrarian.
- The level of income is very low.
- Rates of Birth and mortality rates are high but similar (Mortality is the same as birth rate). Therefore, the population is not growing much at this stage.
- Because of Unemployment, agrarian economy, drought, epidemics, lack of health facilities, superstition,
- Because of Illiteracy, Lack of family planning, Influence of norms and traditions birth rate is high. The characteristic of this stage is that the birth rate and death rate are almost the same in this stage.
- Therefore, The Rate of Population Growth is Low.
2. The Second Stage :
● On This second stage, the population is growing at a tremendous rate. So there is fear of Population Explosion in this stage.
● Mortality begins to decline rapidly in this state because of good health facilities, Dissemination of educationists.
● The growth rate of the population is high, In India, It appeared after 1951.
3. The Third Stage :
● In this third stage, the population decreases.
● Birth rates and mortality rates drop. Birth and mortality rates are at almost the same.
● industrialization is increasing, development in various fields.
● So there’s a possibility that the situation is like, Mutiny low and mortality high.
Features Of Indian Population of India
1. Sex Composition :
● The proportion of women behind a thousand men is called Sex Composition.
In table 1.1, the Sex ratio is defined here as the number of females per 1000 males. In 1901, the proportion was the highest, which is 972 women behind a thousand men. It came down to 940 women behind a thousand in 2011. This Ratio is in consideration of other countries like America 1055, England 1069, Japan 1049, Germany 1080.
In India, women outnumber men, Because women are given a secondary place in comparison to men, Male-dominated culture, Dowry, Girls’ health is neglected. Due to these reasons, the proportion of girls in India is low.
|Census Year||The proportion of females per thousand males||Census Year||The proportion of females per thousand males|
2. Urban and Rural Division of the Population
● In the process of economic development, cities develop faster. It increases the population living in urban areas.
● Urban and rural divisions are important from the point of view of the economic development of a country.
● A country with a large population living in a rural area is considered to be an Underdeveloped Country. A country with a large urban population is considered a Developed Country.
● In the process of economic development, urbanization increases, Since there are employment opportunities in the urban areas (city), In 1951, 82.7% of the population lived in rural areas, That proportion gradually declined to 68.8 percent in 2011
● Developed countries, 15 % to 20 % of the population lives in rural areas and About 80% to 90% of the population lives in urban areas. compared to other countries. India has a much lower urban population than developed countries.
3. Age Composition
● Division according to age composition plays a very important role In the process of economic development, .
● Age group of 0 to 14 Includes Small children.
● People between the ages of 15 and 60 are called the working population. People in this age group contribute to the economic income of the country. Having a large population in this age group helps the country to develop faster.
● The third group of people over the age of 60 is senior citizens. This is considered an unproductive population.
4. The population density in India
● An average number of people living in an area per square kilo-meter is called population density.
● The population density is calculated according to the following formula :
● Population Density = Number of people / Square Miles(or kilo-meters) of land.
● India is the second-most populous country in the world next only to China
.● Some parts of the country are densely populated, some parts moderately populated and some parts are sparsely populated.
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